Participants answered queries about five types of victimization: conventional criminal offense, maltreatment, misuse by siblings and peers, sexual abuse and indirect exposure to violence . A complete of 58.3 % of the young children and teens reported at least one immediate victimization in the previous year, including bullying. Of these, 45.7 % had at least one victimization that was known to authorities.5 % of kidnappings and 70.1 % of gang or group assaults. However, even psychological bullying , neglect and theft were often known to authorities, the authors write. The episodes most reported to authorities included peer and sibling assault infrequently, dating violence, sexual exposure/flashing and statutory rape. Related StoriesPediatricians send apart families who refuse to vaccinate their childrenBoston Kids's Hospital selects Vijay G.Dr Thomas Pike, researcher in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology at Glasgow University said: ‘Males given fewer carotenoids still tried to produce a scarlet throat patch, but could just do so by diverting carotenoids away from their function as antioxidants; therefore by trying to look as good as possible, these males faster aged. ‘It appears that females can inform if males haven’t eaten many carotenoids, if indeed they do look quite red even, and most likely found these males less attractive because they were much more likely to die before they had finished looking after the young,’ stated Dr Pike.’ ‘The most brightly coloured males often get the lady, but why females prefer such show-offs hasn’t been clear,’ stated Dr Jon Blount, Analysis Fellow at the University of Exeter.